Dhaka, Bangladesh
Some crucial points on anemia

Some crucial points on anemia

Dr Mahbuba Sharmin Blood is the only fluid connective tissue in the human body. Blood flows continuously from the heart to the whole body. An adult (male) has 512 litres of blood in his body and an adult(female) has 412 litres of blood in her body. This fluid tissue supplies oxygen and nutrients to the entire body. The two main components of blood are blood cells (55%) and plasma or blood fluid (45%). In plasma, there are various essential proteins- essential factors in preventing blood clotting, and immunoglobulins - which we call antibodies. There are three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells and nuclei. It is not possible to survive in a healthy way if there is a lack in any component of blood of adequate proportion in the body. Red blood cells contain special iron compounds, called hemoglobin in medical terms. Hemoglobin occupies 35% of the total weight of blood including water. Its main function is to supply oxygen from the heart to all the organs of the body and to collect carbon dioxide from the cells and expel it from the body with the breath. So when the hemoglobin in the blood decreases, the body becomes weak due to lack of oxygen. It also causes diseases like which we call anemia. And the way to avoid this is to find out why hemoglobin is declining. The normal level of hemoglobin in the blood of an adult male is 13.5 to 16.5 grams per decilitre. In the blood of adult women it is 11.5 grams to 15.5 grams. If it is less than this, you are caught by anemia. In our country, women are more anemic than men. The cause of anemia can vary with age. 1) Malnutrition is the main cause of anemia in our country. 2) Worm-borne stomach problems, bleeding peptic ulcers, liver problems, stomach or bowel cancer, diseases like piles or excessive bleeding during menstruation or bleeding during childbirth or cancer. 3) Problems in blood production mechanism such as aplastic anemia. 4) Blood cancer leukemia. 5) Vitamin B-12. Lack of folic acid and iron. 6) Hereditary blood diseases due to which the hemoglobin in the blood decreases rapidly, such as malaria. Symptoms: - 1.Feeling weak, exhaustion and fatigue. 2. Heart palpitation. 3. Dizziness, lightheadedness, blurred vision. 4. White lesions in eyes, hands, feet etc and their paleness. 5. Oral thrush, difficulty in swallowing food. 6. It can also cause shortness of breath if at intense level. There may be pressure or pain in the chest. 7. Enlarged spleen and liver. 8. Jaundice What kind of tests are necessary: ​​ If there is a suspicion of anemia, it is necessary to do a complete blood count with blood film in the first place. Then, if any particular disease is suspected in the overall history of the patient, it should be examined accordingly and the advice of a hematologist should be taken. Treatment 1) Anemia itself is not a disease, but a symptom of the disease. So the cause of anemia has to be found out first. Then it has to be treated. 2) If there is anemia, treatment should be taken according to the disease. Such as piles, excessive metal discharge problems, blood cancer, thalassemia, aplastic anemia should be treated accordingly. 3) Iron tablets should be taken only if there is a lack of iron and various foods with iron such as kachu, raw banana, red spinach, liver, marine fish, citrus fruits, egg yolks, nuts, dark chocolate. Iron injection can be taken if necessary. 4) Vitamin B-12, in folic acid deficiency vitamin injection should be given. 5) Deworming tablets should be taken. Finally, it should be borne in mind that not all cases of anemia require blood transfusion. First, we find out the cause of anemia and, if necessary, we take the advice of a hematologist. The writer is a hematologist at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Uttara Crescent Hospital

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